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The term “arbitrariness” is often used to describe a determination made without consideration of or regard for facts, circumstances, fixed rules, or procedures

Legal fraud consists of a material representation of a presently existing or past fact, made with knowledge of its falsity, with the intention that the other party rely thereon, and he does so rely to his damage

Generally, first amendment jurisprudence forbids civil courts from deciding issues of religious doctrine or ecclesiastical polity

Standing refers to the plaintiff’s ability or entitlement to maintain an action before the court

Summary judgment must be granted if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact challenged and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment or order as a matter of law.

Sometimes, courts will disregard the corporation as the alter ego of its shareholders, officers, or owners

An assignee of a Mortgage and Note is chargeable with knowledge of a default as it simply moves into the shoes of the assignor

Once a corporation becomes insolvent, a director or officer assumes fiduciary or quasi-trust duty to the corporation’s creditors

Caim for unjust enrichment

Claim for breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing